terça-feira, 28 de julho de 2009
Tridandisvami Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja
Austrália, Murwillumbah; 18 de fevereiro de 2002
(Uma aula sobre o Jaiva Dharma)
[Há 10 verdades essenciais acerca da existência que são denominadas de Dasamula. O Dasamula Siksa ou os ensinamentos sobre estas verdades foram delineados por Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura.
amnaya praha tattvam harim iha paramam sarva-saktim rasabdim
tad bhinnamsams ca jivan prakrti-kavalitan tad vimuktams ca bhavad
bhedabheda-prakasam sakalam api hareh sadhanam suddha-bhaktim
sadhyam tat pritim evety upadisati janan gauracandrah svayam sah
”A mensagem dos Vedas recebida através do guru-parampara é chamada de amnaya. Os Vedas e smrti-sastra (tais como Srimad-Bhagavatam) que seguem os Vedas são aceitos como prova autorizada, assim como outros diferentes tipos de evidência, como a percepção direta desde que confirmem a versão Védica. Destas fontes de evidências, as seguintes verdades essenciais são estabelecidas:
1. Hari é a Suprema Verdade;
2. Ele é sarva-saktiman, aquele que possui todas as potências;
3. Ele é akhila rasamrta-sindu, o oceano de toda as melosidades nectáreas transcendentais;
4. Os dois tipos de jivas, nominalmente mukta-jiva e baddha-jiva (almas liberadas e almas condicionadas) são Suas expansões separadas (vibhinnamsa-tattva);
5. As almas condicionadas estão sob o controle de maya;
6. As mukta-jivas estão livres da influência de maya;
7. Tudo o que existe, seja conscientes ou não, é uma manifestação de Sri Hari; sendo, portanto simultaneamente e inconcebivelmente uno e diferente dEle;
8. Bhakti é o único sadhana (meio para se alcançar a meta);
9. O amor de Krsna (prema) é o único objetivo (sadhya);
Svayam Bhagavan Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu deu instruções sobre estes dez tipos de tattva para as jivas sinceras. Destas instruções, a primeira explica o princípio da evidência (pramana-tattva) enquanto que as nove restantes são prameya-tattva, ou os temas que são estabelecidos por pramana-tattva."
No final de sua aula sobre o Jaiva Dharma em Murwillumbah, Srila Narayana Maharaja explicou estas dez verdades.]
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Anote estes princípios em seus corações, em seu caderno, e quando precisar, você poderá dizer com coragem: "Esta é a nossa filosofia". O que é amnaya?
[Sripad Asrama Maharaja:] Amnaya praha quer dizer os ensinamentos védicos conforme trazidos através de nossa sucessão discipular. Há muitos ensinamentos nos Vedas, mas nem todos são aceitos na linha do serviço devocional puro. Amnaya praha significa, especificamente, aqueles ensinamentos presentes nas escrituras védicas que são aceitas por nossos acaryas anteriores e que nos são passados na linha de sucessão guru-discípulo.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Qual é a segunda ?
[Syamarani dasi:] Amnaya apresenta-se separado uma vez que é o pramana, a evidência. Amnaya determina o que é prameya, isto é, o que é estabelecido pelo pramana sástrico. Há nove princípios estabelecidos pela literatura Védica e são chamados de prameya.
O primeiro destes nove é que Hari, Vrajendranandana Sri Krsna é a Suprema Verdade Absoluta. Ele é o advaya-jnana para -tattva. Ele é único sem existir um outro. Todas as demais encarnações e manifestações de Deus vêm dEle. Ele é amsi, ou a origem de todos os avataras e de outras encarnações - como os purusa-avataras, lila-avataras e guna- avataras que são todos emanações dEle. Este é o primeiro prameya estabelecido pelo pramana ou pelo amnaya.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Você deve saber que a palavra Brahma, e também as palavras Alá e Deus, tem o mesmo significado. Brahma significa o maior, como Alá. Mas a palavra Bhagavan tem um significado muito doce. Se alguém tem opulência e grandeza ilimitadas, mas não pode ser muito pequeno e leve, como pode então ser Deus? Ele não pode ser Deus. Mas Krsna tem ambas as qualidades: Ele é o maior, porque o mundo inteiro está situado em um de Seus poros, e Ele está em todos os lugares. Ao mesmo tempo Ele é anoraniyam; Ele está dentro de cada átomo diminuto e em cada partícula dos raios do sol.
Krsna está em todo lugar. Ele está em nós e também nas trepadeiras, árvores, pedras secas e em todos os lugares. Ele está também neste livro. Mas se Krsna está em todo lugar - em átomos, árvores e trepadeiras - porque eles não falam? Nós falamos porque Krsna está em nós, mas por que este livro não fala? Não há jivatma (alma) no livro. Onde há ambos, jivatma e paramatma, falar é possível. Nós podemos falar. Quem somos nós? Somos alma. Krsna está presente no livro, mas não há alma lá. Tanto a alma quanto a Superalma estão presentes nas árvores, assim, elas podem sentir e dizer algo em sua linguagem. Krsna é Supremo. Ele pode ser o mais diminuto do diminuto, e Ele pode ser o maior do maior. Narayana tem muita opulência; Deus tem muita opulência, contudo, a maioria das pessoas pensa que Ele não tem forma e que não pode vir até nós. Mas Krsna vem até nós em uma forma muito doce. Ele é muito ardiloso e amável. Ele pode vir como um filho, um amigo ou como o mais amado. Narayana, Deus, Alá e Huda não virão desta forma, e, por esta razão. Krsna é o Supremo. Hari parama-tattva.
O terceiro ponto é sarva-saktiman (o possuidor de todos os poderes e energias).
[Sripad Madhava Maharaja:] Krsna é todo-poderoso. Ele tem assim muitas saktis (poderes), como jiva-sakti, cit-sakti e maya-sakti, essas três saktis proeminentes. Na verdade, sakti é uma sendo chamada de antaranga-sakti, hladini-sakti ou para-sakti. De acordo com o desejo de Krsna, esta sakti é definida como diferente de acordo com suas diferentes funções. Nos Upanisads está declarado:
na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate
na tat-samas cabhyadhikas ca drsyate
parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate
svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca
["O Supremo Senhor não tem nada a fazer e ninguém é igual ou superior a Ele, pois tudo é feito natural e sistematicamente por Suas múltiplas energias." (Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.8)]
Neste mundo, tudo depende da teoria da causa e efeito. Primeiro há uma causa e então se observa um resultado. Mas para Bhagavan Sri Krsna, na tasya karyam karanam ca vidyate. Ele está completamente além da teoria de causa e efeito.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Krsna é sarva-saktiman. Nós não podemos vê-lO com estes olhos ou com esta inteligência, nem podemos tocá-lO com estes sentidos. Embora Ele esteja além de nossos limites, quando Ele quer, Ele chama Yogamaya e ela toca este mundo e Krsna também, e, neste momento, é possível vê-lO.
Alguns acreditam que Krsna é o Deus dos deuses e outros não conseguem acreditam nisto. Kamsa viu Krsna e Krsna tocou seu corpo. Carana e Mustika também O viram, e Ele também tocou seus corpos; mas Eles nunca realizaram que Ele era Deus. Duryodhana e Jarasandha também O viram, assim como Ravana, Kumbhakarna e outros demônios viram Rama. Rama também é Krsna, mas eles nunca realizaram isto. Eles estavam sob a influência de Maya, enquanto que aqueles que estão na associação de Vaisnavas podem realizar quem é Deus através da misericórdia de Yogamaya. Ele é, portanto, sarva-saktiman.
Krsna manifesta-Se neste mundo por meio de pradhana, que por sua vez manifesta o ar, a água, o fogo, o éter e a terra. Pradhana é material, mas também é uma sakti, e este poder de Krsna é chamado maya-sakti ou bahiranga- sakti (energia externa). As manifestações mundanas de pradhana não são eternas, mas o poder em si mesmo é eterno.
O que é rasabdim?
[Pundarika dasa:] Em seguida, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explica que Krsna também é referido como rasabdim, que significa o oceano de rasa, Ele do qual todas as rasas ou doçuras estão emanando. Krsna também é referido como raso vai saha nos Vedas. Ele é o reservatório original de todas as rasas e Ele é a própria personificação da rasa. O que isto significa? Acabamos de ouvir que Krsna é o todo-poderoso e que é dotado com uma potência completamente transcendental. Esta potência manifesta-se de inúmeras maneiras e satisfaz os desejos de Krsna. Os três aspectos principais da potência interna de Sri Krsna são conhecidos como samvit, hladini e sandini, e afetam todas as atividades das potências interna, marginal e externa. Neste mundo material, devido à influência da potência externa, todas as jivas experimentam jadananda, prazer material. Este prazer material é, na verdade, um reflexo pervertido da potência interna de hladini-sakti. Aqueles que cruzam este nível e são capazes de chegar à plataforma de Brahma-bhuta prasanatma (experimentar o brahman) também estão experimentando um reflexo da potência interna do Senhor. Neste estágio mais puro, em Goloka Vrindavana e em todos os mundos espirituais, hladini-sakti provê todos os prazeres para o Senhor. Por esta razão, é dito que Ele é o reservatório de todas as rasas experimentadas por alguém, em qualquer lugar.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Há dois tipos de jivas que vêm de Krsna. Qual é o significado de bhedabheda?
[Srila Bhakti Sara Maharaja:] Neste mesmo sloka, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura diz: bhedabheda-prakasam. A Verdade Absoluta é simultaneamente una e diferente de tudo. Em outras palavras, Deus está em todo lugar, mas tudo não é Deus. Esta é a diferença entre a filosofia monista de Shankara e as várias escolas do pensamento Vaisnava, como as de: Madhva, Ramanuja, Visnusvami e Nimbaditya.
[Srila narayana Maharaja:] Em um sentido podemos ver que as jivas são não diferentes de Krsna, mas, ao mesmo tempo, elas são diferentes. As jivas vêm da sakti e são uma transformação da sakti; elas não são manifestações completas como svamsa. Há algumas diferenças e também algumas não-diferenças. As jivas têm algumas qualidades de parambrahma, mas não todas. Elas não podem criar. Elas não podem ser como svamsa, expansões plenárias (Visnu) de Krsna. Elas podem ficar encobertas a qualquer momento. Esta diferença e não-diferença (igualdade) não são concebíveis para as almas condicionadas. Somente pelas palavras dos gurus, ou seja, pelo amnaya, entendimento através do Veda-sastra, que elas podem saber isto.
[Devoto:] Você disse há pouco que a jiva pode sempre pode ser encoberta, mas há dois dias, citou o Jaiva Dharma sobre o fato de Baladeva manifestar certas jivas que são associados eternos de Krsna em Vrindavana.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Não são jivas.
[Devoto:] Mas a palavra no livro é jiva.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Não há palavra apropriada em nossa linguagem. Eles são todos parikaras (associados eternos). A palavra jiva somente é aplicável aqui - neste mundo. Todas as jivas podem ser encobertas. Naquela morada, as expansões de Baladeva Prabhu são chamadas de parisada (associados), e também de chamados nitya-mukta (sempre liberadas). Aqui as almas não são nitya-mukta; mas sim são nitya-baddha. De fato, essas almas não são nitya-baddha (condicionadas eternamente), mas anadi-baddha (condicionadas desde tempos imemoriais). Elas podem ser liberadas.
O que é sadhana?
[Vraja Vallabha dasa:] Sadhana é o processo pelo qual a jiva pode se libertar do reino de maya e também ...
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Isto é externo. O que é interno?
[Vraja Vallabha dasa:] Por este processo se alcançará suddha-bhakti.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Através do sadhana, de bhakti, podemos alcançar bhava e gradualmente prema. Sadhana é a execução de sravanam, kirtanam, visnu smaranam, pada-sevanam, arcanam, vandanam, dasyam, sakhyam e atma-nivedanam.
["Ouvindo e cantando sobre os santos nomes transcendentais, forma, qualidades, parafernália e passatempos do Senhor Visnu, lembrando-se deles, servindo os pés de lótus do Senhor, oferecendo respeitosamente adoração ao Senhor com dezesseis tipos de parafernália, oferecendo orações ao Senhor, tornando-se Seu servo, considerando o Senhor como o seu melhor amigo, e rendendo-se totalmente a Ele (em outras palavras, servindo a Ele com o corpo, mente e palavras)."(SB 7.5.23)]
Além disso, os cinco processos mais importantes são:
sadhu-sanga, nama-kirtana, bhagavata-sravana
mathura-vasa, sri-murtira sraddhaya sevana
[Deve-se associar com devotos, cantar os nomes santos do Senhor, ouvir o Srimad-Bhagavatam, residir em Mathura e adorar as Deidades com fé e veneração." ( Cc Madhya 22.128)
Dentre esses cinco processos, os três mais proeminentes são sravanam, kirtanam e visnu smaranam; e entre estes, o mais importante processo é cantar Hare Krsna.
harer nama harer nama
harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva
nasty eva gatir anyatha
["Nesta era de desavenças e hipocrisia o único meio de libertação é cantar os santos nomes do Senhor. Não há outra maneira. Não há outra maneira. Não há outra maneira." (Cc Adi 17.21)].
Nama-sankirtana é o melhor sadhana dentre todos, porque os santos nomes são os próprios Radha e Krsna. Por cantar, podemos alcançar prema, o qual é nosso prayojana. A primeira das dez verdades essenciais é a evidência, e esta evidência é amnaya- aquela que é aceita pelo nosso guru-parampara.
Dentre todas as evidências sastricas, o Srimad-Bhagavatam é supremo. As próximas verdades revelam sambandha-jñana, abhideya e krsna prema- prayojana. Krsna é o Supremo, sem existir um segundo, advaya-jnana-para-tattva. Ele é o oceano de rasa, e Ele é sarva-saktiman. Existem dois tipos de jivas que vêm dEle, e há uma diferença e uma não defierença entre as jivas e o Deus Supremo. O sadhana é a prática de suddha-bhakti, enquanto que prema é prayojana (meta última). Desta maneira, há dez verdades fundamentais. Este Dasamula Siksa foi dadod e forma resumida no Jaiva Dharma, e todos vocês devem se lembrar destas dez verdades.
Meus agradecimentos a todos aqueles que, de alguma maneira, vieram se reunir aqui. Oro para que Krsna derrame Sua misericórdia sobre todos aqueles que auxiliaram com dinheiro, energia ou por dar aulas. Oro para que Krsna e Caitanya Mahaprabhu sejam misericordioso com eles. Além disso, para aqueles que estão cantando (bhajanas e kirtanas) e que estão me auxiliando de alguma maneira - oro para que eles desenvolvam amor e afeição por Krsna e apego por krsna nama. Eles nunca devem ser fracos.
Minhas bênçãos afetuosas para todos vocês.
Advisory: Pujyapada Madhava Maharaja
Transcribers: Raghunatha dasa and Jagad Mohini dasi
Editor: Syamarani dasi
Typist: Radhika dasi
Tradução: Basanti dasi
segunda-feira, 27 de julho de 2009
Wednesday, 12 December 2001
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura
Germany: December 12, 2001 (pm)
Tridandisvami Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja
[June 17, 2004 is the divine disappearance day of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. The following is a lecture about his glories.]
Srila Rupa Gosvami has full faith in the mano' bhista of Srila Caitanya Mahaprabhu:
sthapitam yena bhu-tale
svayam rupah kada mahyam
"When will Srila Rupa Gosvami Prabhupada, who has established within this material world the mission to fulfill the desire of Lord Caitanya, give me shelter under his lotus feet?"
Srila Rupa Gosvami inspired in the heart of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, the Saptam Gosvami, (seventh Gosvami) the essence of all the teachings of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: that is, Jaiva-dharma. Jaiva-dharma was written by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in very simple Bengali language. Written in the form of dialogue, it is the essence of all the teachings of all the Gosvamis, especially Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. Now I am going to explain something about that essence. If you want to advance in Krsna consciousness, try to read this book again and again with very strong faith. In this book you can very easily have the essence of all Indian literature, that is, the Vedas, the Upanisads, Srimad Bhagavatam and Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.
I first translated Jaiva-dharma from Bengali to Hindi. When I had any difficulty to understand, I went to my Gurudeva. I also went to Parama Pujyapada Srauti Maharaja and all other very qualified disciples of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Thakura for consultation. Srila Bhakti Pramoda Puri Gosvami Maharaja read my translation and expressed his heartfelt appreciation, and now the same book has been translated to English.
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura has written this book in the form of a dialogue, with questions and answers. You would not be able to even think of as many questions as Bhaktivinoda Thakura has presented there. As many questions as are possible to be asked has been presented there. No one else could have put forward such questions.
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura begins the first chapter by telling us that in this entire universe, this Earth is very prominent. Why? On this planet, Vrndavana Dhama and Navadvipa Dhama are present. It is only for this reason that the Earth is prominent or superior.
Why is Vrndavana superior? The gopis are present there. Why are the gopis superior? Srimati Radhika is present with them, and wherever Radhika is present, Krsna is also bound to be there. Why is Gaura-bhumi superior? Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took birth there. Mahaprabhu is Krsna, having taken the intrinsic mood of Radhika, along with Her golden beauty. He appeared in Gaura-mandala, and that place is therefore the essence of the entire universe. It is not less then Vrndavana. It is the same as Vrndavana, and in some cases it is superior because of its vaisistha (speciality). [Vrndavana Dhama considers offenses, whereas Navadvipa forgives them.]
Lord Krsna and Sriman Mahaprabhu are the same. As They are the same, although different at appearance, Vrndavana Dhama and Navadvipa Dhama are also the same. Some say that Caitanya Mahaprabhu's exalted separation mood at the Gambira in Jagannatha Puri may be superior to the moods in Navadvipa, but such persons are totally ignorant. Because Subhadra, Baladeva and Krsna are together in Puri, it is like Dvaraka. Nowhere in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta or the books of Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami is it written that Puri is Vrndavana. Rather:
sri gauda-mandala bhumi, yeba jane cintamani
tara haya vrajabhumi vasa
"One who understands the transcendental nature of Navadvipa and its surrounding area where Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu enacted His pastimes, resides always in Vrndavana."
(Gaurangera dhuti-pada of Srila Narottama dasa Thakura)
It is written in many sastras that Navadvipa is Vrndavana, but it has never been written that Puri is Vrndavana. It may have been written that when Caitanya Mahaprabhu was there, He sometimes used to see the sea as Yamuna and Cataka Parvata as Govardhana. He saw that hill as Govardhana, but it is not that it was or is Govardhana. Even when He was going to Vrndavana on His way in Jharikanda forest, Mahaprabhu used to see Vrndavana. That place is not Vrndavana, but because of His own bhavas, He saw it as such. On the other hand, Navadvipa is actually Vrndavana.
The sweet pastimes of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, which took place in Navadvipa, are far superior to what took place in Gambhira, what to speak of what took place in South India, on the bank of Godavari, where Raya Ramananda and Mahaprabhu met and discussed.
Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura tells us that Surabhi cow once came to Navadvipa and performed austerities and aradhana there. Worship and aradhana are different.
[Sripada Madhava Maharaja:] Worship is puja.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Aradhana means uttering and meditating on the gopala-mantra or kama-gayatri mantra. The aradhana for Krsna may be done only by kama-bhija and kama-gayatri:
vrndavane 'aprakrta navina madana'
kama-gayatri kama-bije yanra upasana (C.c. Madhya 8. 138)
"In the spiritual realm of Vrndavana, Krsna is the spiritual, ever-fresh Cupid. He is worshiped by the chanting of the kama-gayatri mantra, with the spiritual seed klim".
It is this aradhana which she performed, and it was at this place that Pradyumna Brahmacari used to worship Sri Nrsimhadeva and meditate. There, at Pradyumna Bhajana Kutira, Prema dasa Babaji was engaged in performing bhajana. Paramahamsa Prema dasa Babaji was the siksa-sisya disciple of Pradyumna-Misra Brahmacari. It has not been written by whom he was initiated. It has not been written who was his diksa-guru. Why? He accepted the bhagavata-guru-parampara.
In our line (the Gaudiya Sampradaya) there is a prominence of bhagavat-parampara. In our line, Srila Gaura Kisora dasa Babaji Maharaja was a disciple of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, and Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura was a disciple of Srila Jagannatha dasa Babaji Maharaja in bhagavat-parampara. Bhaktivinoda Thakura was formally initiated by his family guru, Vipina Bihari Gosvami, but he accepted Srila Jagannatha dasa Babaji Maharaja, his siksa-guru, as his actual guru. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura also never gave very much importance to the diksa-guru-parampara. Rather, he accepted the bhagavat-parampara.
The bhagavata-parampara consists only of siddha-mahatmas, realized persons, Lord Krsna's associates; whereas the diksa-parampara, the parampara consisting of only diksa-gurus, may or may not include that very high class of siddha-guru. Besides Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, all the sastras including Srimad-Bhagavatam have accepted this line, because the diksa-guru-parampara is included in the bhagavat-guru-parampara.
Nowadays, so many are hearing from sahajiya babajis. Because they are ignorant, they do not accept this truth of bhagavat-parampara. I have given so many examples and clear vision of siksa-guru, diksa-guru, bhagavata-parampara, and other related topics in my book, Five Essential Essays (Prabandha Pancakam). If one wants to know more about these topics, he can read that book. Always be careful regarding these sahajiya babajis and others like them.
If you go deep in your reading of Jaiva-dharma, so many new things will come.
As Srila Prabhupada Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura said that he read Prahlada-caritra (the Srimad-Bhagavatam 7th Canto history of Prahlada Maharaja) not less then 100 or 108 times, so I have read Jaiva-dharma not less than 108 times.
In Jaiva-dharma we read about the siddha-mahatma, Premadasa Babaji. How was Premadasa Babaji engaged in bhajana? He was very learned in all the scriptures, especially in Srimad-Bhagavatam and Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. He always resided and performed bhajana in Navadvipa Dhama, especially in Godruma, where Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura also used to do his bhajana. There he regularly chanted two hundred thousand holy names daily, and by such chanting he was weeping and his heart was melting. He was offering thousands of sastang-pranama daily, to each Vaisnava in our guru-parampara. He also offered obeisances to all the important places of Sri Vraja-mandala Dhama, Sri Navadvipa-mandala Dhama, and Sri Ksetra-mandala Dhama. He regularly offered obeisances to Bhandiravat, Rasa-sthali, Vrndavana, Vamsivata, Gopisvara Mahadeva, Yamuna phulina (the shore of Yamuna), the associates of Radha and Krsna like Lalita, Visakha, Citra and Champakalata, all the sakhis, all the manjaris, and to all the vipaksa, tatastha, and suhrt gopis. He offered obeisances to everyone, from top to bottom, for hours and hours. He was not merely offering namaskara-pranama (with folded palms), but rather he offered sastang-pranama (obeisances with all the limbs of the body).
He also engaged in madhukari-bhiksa. It is said that unless one performs madhu-kari in Nandagaon, he cannot attain perfection. Even if he regularly performs madhukari in Vrndavana, he must also do it at least one day in Nandagaon. Nandagaon is the place of Mother Yasoda and Nanda Baba, and Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Sanatana Gosvami stayed there at Ter Kadamba. Navadvipa is non-different from Vrndavana, and in Navadvipa, Godruma is Nandagaon.
When Premadasa Babaji had extra time, he did not engage in gramya-katha (mundane talks). Rather, he used to read Sri Prema-vivarta. Prema-vivarta was written by Srila Jagadananda Pandita, one of the high-class associates of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. That book is full of transcendental mellows, very elevated truths, and so many teachings. When Premadasa Babaji read it, he used to weep bitterly. His heart melted and his bodily hairs stood on end.
Do you read Sri Caitanya-caritamrta like this? Try to do so. If you do, anarthas will disappear and you will go deep in love and affection. If you are chanting, "Hare Krsna Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare" without a deep mood, tears will not come. However, when you call out, "Hare Krsna Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare" with a deep mood of longing, then Krsna may come. He is bound to enter our hearts, at which time our hearts will melt by taking His darsana. Moreover, Krsna will not come alone. He will come with Radhika. Moreover, Radhika will not come alone, but with all Her associates. She will come with all of Vrndavana Dhama. Your heart will melt if you chant in this way.
Whenever Premadasa Babaji chanted Hare Krsna, he always remembered all the sweet pastimes of Krsna. All the neighboring persons would come and hear from him, and those who came also used to weep. This is reminiscent of the assembly of Srila Rupa Gosvami. All devotees present there wept by seeing Rupa Gosvami weep, as he heard Srimad Bhagavatam from Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami.
Those who have many, many worldly desires cannot weep. They can weep only when there is a problem. Always engaged in looking after their bodies, they have no time to weep for Krsna. You should be very careful about this. Someone may be continually engaged in sense gratification, in overeating, and in collecting all things for sense gratification; and at the same time he may be thinking, "I will do bhajana." This is not the process.
One day, at about three 3 o'clock in the afternoon, after he had completed his chanting, Premadasa Babaji was reading Prema-vivarta and weeping. At that time, a person in the renounced order, a sannyasi, who had come from Kasi, Varanasi began to offer him his sastang pranama. That sannyasi did not rise up for some time, and in the meantime Babaji Maharaja was totally absorbed in the mood of Prema-vivarta. In Prema-vivarta, Sri Jagadananda Pandita was remembering his association with Nimai Pandita (Sacinandana Gaurahari) in Navadvipa. He remembered when, one day, both were quarrelling, and Mahaprabhu came and found him weeping alone on the banks of Ganges at midnight.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had asked his associates, "Where is Jagadananda? Perhaps he is in a sulky mood, and that is why he has not yet returned." Sulking in a mood of transcendental loving anger, Jagadananda wept due to his remembering Nimai Pandita, and he did not speak with anyone. Mahaprabhu came and embraced him, also weeping, and said, "Oh, Jagadananda, without you, I cannot remain in my room". Somehow Jagadananda Pandita was pacified, and then both returned to Mahaprabhu's residence.
Jagadananda Pandita has written that whenever thoughts appear in his memory, he writes them down. He is not writing in serial or chronological order.
[Sripad Madhava Maharaja:] In other books there is sequence, but in this book it is not so.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Babaji Maharaja was totally absorbed in that mood, meditating on the reason for Jagadananda's anger and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's pacifying him. And he was also weeping as he remembered the pastime. When he came to his external consciousness, Premadasa Babaji saw that sannyasi doing sastang pranama and called out, "Ha (Alas) Caitanya! Ha Nityananda! Please be merciful to me. Sprinkle your mercy upon me. He was trinad api sunicena, more humble than a blade of grass, and he began to weep very loudly. The sannyasi then rose up and told him: "I am so fallen. Why are you mocking me? I'm not of that quality." And that sannyasi again fell down at the lotus feet of Babaji Maharaja.
Babaji Maharaja then gave him an asana (small seat) on which to sit. He was niskincana, without material possessions, and was only able to offer an asana made of banana leaves. At that time, the asramas of sannyasis were like that.
Babaji Maharaja asked the sannyasi: "What service may I render to you?" Sannyasi Maharaja put down his kamandalu (water pot). He had no lota. He only had a water pot made of the dry skin of a gourd (a vegetable known as a loki). It was not made of gold or any other opulent material.
He said, "For twelve years I studied sankhya, patanjala, vaisesika, purva-mimamsa and uttara mimamsa, all the Upanisads, and Vedanta written by Sri Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasadeva, in Kasi and other places. I was always absorbed in practicing their teachings. I also took sannyasa from Sacidananda Sarasvati in Kasi, Varanasi."
Sannyasi Thakura was a very learned person. He had read all the sastras, like Veda, Upanisads, Vedanta and Nyaya, and he had taken sannyasa from a high class of advaitavadi (mayavadi) sannyasi. He continued, "I went to all the pilgrimage places in the Himalayas, South India, and elsewhere, and I associated with elevated mayavadi philosophers and sannyasis. There I passed the stages of kuticaka, bahudaka, and hamsa." The first stage of a sannyasi is kuticaka. In that stage the sannyasi makes a hut for bhajana and lives there. After that comes the stage of bahudaka. In this second stage of sannyasa, the devotee has no fixed place for performing bhajana, and he drinks water from many different places. After this comes the stage of hamsa. What is the essence of hamsa?
[Sripad Madhava Maharaja:] A swan can separate milk from water and drink only the milk portion.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] Similarly, this 'hamsa' sannyasi knows the difference between worldly things and paramarthika (transcendental or spiritual) things. He rejects all worldly things and has no worldly desires at all. Sannyasi Thakura continued, "Finally I entered the paramahamsa stage and I was totally absorbed in 'Aham brahmasmi,' 'Prajnanam brahma,' 'Sarvam kalvidam brahma,' 'Tattvam asi,' and 'I am brahma, brahma, brahma' (meaning “I am that God). Practicing in that way, I used to think that I had realized Brahma. Yet, I was not satisfied."
Srila Vyasadeva was not satisfied by writing many sastras like Mahabharata and Gita. He had divided all the Vedas in four, he wrote the Vedanta sastras, he wrote the Puranas, and he was master of them all – but still he was not satisfied. One day, Narada mercifully came and told him, "What have you done? You have not glorified the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, and that is why you are not satisfied. You should meditate in trance on Krsna's pastimes, and after that, you should write His glorification."
What is that glorification? Mother Yasoda is twisting the ears of that Parama-brahma. That Parama-brahma is playing with the cowherd boys, and cowherd boys are defeating Him in wrestling. They sometimes eat sweet preparations and then put that same prasadam in the mouth of that Supreme Lord. Sometimes that Supreme Lord prays to gopis, massages their feet, and tells them, 'I will be indebted to you for My whole life. I cannot repay you.' Have you written this?"
Vyasadeva answered, "Never. I don't know all these things."
Narada said, "So, what have you done? You have done nothing."
Vyasadeva asked, "How will I come to know all these things?"
Narada answered, "Oh, pray in trance. Surrender yourself. 'Sarva dharman parijyata / mam ekam saranam vraja.' The mantra that contains the word 'pracodayat' will help you. What is the meaning of pracodayat? Praca-udayat. 'Please come in my trance and reveal to me how glorious and sweet you are.' This is the proper prayer, and with prayers such as this, you should surrender." Srila Vyasadeva then totally surrendered and meditated in a trance of bhakti. Bhakti yogena manasi. Yasyavai suyamame. He saw the Parama-purusa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Purnam-purusam, the complete feature of the Personality of Godhead.
In what way did he see this? Radhika was there with Krsna and Her associates, the sakhis. Nanda Baba, Yasoda, all the sakhas, cowherd boys, and so many thousands upon thousands of cows were there. Vrsabhanu Maharaja, Kirtika, and Sridama were also there.
Srila Vyasadeva also saw in that Purnam-purusa, Narayana, Nrsimha Rama, Kalki and Vamana. He saw the entire universe and all the jivas there. Those jivas who had forgotten Krsna were being crushed in the chain of maya, birth and death, and those who had accepted a sad-guru and were chanting and remembering Krsna, were gradually going towards him. Vyasadeva then wrote what he saw in his trance of meditation, and that writing was Srimad Bhagavatam. He then became satisfied.
He called his son, Sri Sukadeva Gosvami, and told him, "You should study." Sukadeva Gosvami then studied the entire Srimad Bhagavatam. Although he was atmarama, fully satisfied in his atma, still he studied.
Similarly, Sannyasi Thakura is saying, "I was a very learned person in Veda, Vedanta, and all other sastras, and I was practicing the utterance of 'aham brahmasmi;' but I was not happy. I tried with great difficulty to realize ananda with 'I am Brahma.' Brahma is anandamaya, Brahma is made of happiness, but I did not realize any happiness at all."
"Then, one day I saw in a sadhu Vaisnava in Varanasi and that Vaisnava was weeping bitterly and calling out: 'Sri Krsna Caitanya, prabhu Nityananda, Sri Advaita, Gadadhara, Srivasadi Gaura bhakta Vrnda.' As that sadhu wept bitterly, he was trying to walk, but he could not. Tears were flowing from his eyes as he cried out.
“Be merciful to me. Fie on me. I am a wretched person. Although I saw him for only a moment, an ecstatic feeling came, but I cannot express its nature. My heart realized that his mood was so much greater than 'aham brahmasmi.' At that time I could not approach him to ask, 'Who are you and what are you doing?' I avoided him because I thought I was a paramahamsa, absorbed in 'I am Brahma. I am brahma!’ So fie on me.
"After some time, I realized my false position and began searching, 'Where is that Vaisnava?' But I was not so fortunate to meet him. I considered that because he was a Vaisnava, he must be somewhere in Vrndavana. I left my position, my danda, my kamandalu, and everything else, and I was searching in the lanes of Vrndavana. When I saw any Vaisnava, he was also weeping bitterly, 'Ha Krsna, Ha Vrajendranandana Syamasundara.' Then I thought, 'Sri Krsna Caitanya Prabhu Nityananda. Oh, he may be in Navadvipa Dhama.’
I therefore wanted to visit that Navadvipa Dhama, to see why it is considered so glorious. By that curiosity, I came to this place and heard about your glories. So many Vaisnavas told me, 'Babaji Maharaja is so advanced. If you want to hear something about Sri Krsna Caitanya and Prabhu Nityananda, you should take shelter of Prema dasa Babaji Maharaja in Godruma.'"
Saying this, Sannyasi Thakura began to weep and offer his sastang pranama. Babaji Maharaja then embraced him, also weeping, and cried out, "Oh, Nityananda Prabhu." Now, in a moment, Sannyasi Thakura realized the transcendental happiness he could never realize before.
You can read so many books. You can have thousands of books, and with those books you can make a big library. But how you can make a library of these moods? How will your heart melt? This is a main subject. Try to follow Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. "Rupa raghunatha pade mora asa / caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsna dasa."
[Sripad Asrama Maharaja:] For the whole tour, Gurudeva, please give classes on Jaiva Dharma.
[Srila Narayana Maharaja:] I cannot speak further. Try to digest this much and follow. Try to give up your false ego entirely: your kama, krodha, lobha, mada, matsarya, (lust, anger, greed, pride, illusion and envy) and worldly attachments. Call out, “Vrajendranandana! Where is Vrajendranandana? Where is Caitanya Mahaprabhu? Where is Rupa? Ha Rupa! Ha Sanatana!" We should try to advance in this way. This is the essence of Jaiva Dharma.
Try to be like Sannyasi Maharaja. Follow that sannyasi of Kasi, Varanasi. Give up all your learning and worldly sense gratification, and be like him. Gradually we will discuss this further.
Gaura premanande hari haribol.
Transcriber: Srimati Yasoda devi dasi
Editor: Syamarani dasi
Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura
The Ten Maxims of Sri Krishna Caitanya
The Essence of Ten Maxims
By Srila Thakura Bhaktivinoda
amnayah praha tattvam/ harimiha
paramam/ sarvasaktim/ rasabdhim/
tadbhinnamsamsca jivan/ prakriti kavalitan/
bhedabheda-prakasam sakalamapi hareh/
sadhanam suddha bhaktim/
sadhyam yat pritim/ evetyupadisati harau
The wisdom revealed by Sri Gauracandra is being described briefly as follows:
Dasa Mula BhaktivinodaTam gauracandra bhaje (I worship that Sri Gauracandra) yah (who) amnayah praha tattvam (the ninefold aspects of wisdom revealed as authorised by the Vedic scriptures; such as, (1) Sri Hari is the only source of wisdom; (2) He is omnipotent; (3) He is the ocean of universal bliss; (4) the living entities are the parts and parcels of Sri Hari; (5) some of the living entities are conditioned by the material nature; (6) some of the living entities are liberated from material nature; (7) the universe is nothi ng but the manifestation in oneness and difference with Sri Hari; (8) uncontaminated devotion is the only means of liberation for the conditioned souls; (9) love for Supreme Godhead is the only goal of knowledge and wisdom. Thus, in the verse, the requis ites for wisdom, as revealed by Sri Krsnacaitanya, are presented.
"I worship Sri Gauracandra [Lord Caitanya] Who has revealed the path of wisdom. The Vedic scriptures are the only authority for knowledge of the ninefold aspects of wisdom, which are (1) Sri Hari is the only source of wisdom; (2) He is omnipotent; (3) H e is an ocean of bliss; (4) the living entities are His parts and parcels; (5) some of the living entities are conditioned by the material nature; (6) other living entities are liberated from material nature; (7) everything, including the jivas, is one an d different from Sri Hari; (8) unalloyed devotional service is the only means for the conditioned souls to go beyond this world of birth and death; (9) love for the Supreme Lord [prema] is the only goal."
svatahsiddho vedo haridayita vedhah prabhrtitah
pramanam satpraptam pramiti-visayan tan navavidhan
tatha pratyaksadi-pramiti-sahitam sadhayati nah
na juktistarkakhya pravisati tatha saktirahita
The transcendental wisdom of the ten maxim is being enumerated in ten verses - svatah siddho vedah haridayita-vedyhah prabhrtitah (the Vedic scriptures are the only source of all authoritative wisdom according to words mentioned therein, viz., 'asya maha to bhutasya nisvasitametat'[Rk Veda] etc. The Vedic instruction as obtained through disciplic succession by Brahma etc. as the closest associates of the Supreme Godhead, according to the words 'brahma devanam prathamah samvabhuva' as stated in the Mundak a Upanisad, must be considered as 'the Vedas' and not dry arguments and speculation; and that those are the only Vedic maxims) pratyaksadi pramiti sahitam (with perceptable proofs) nah (about us) tan pramiti-visayan (about those propositions) nava vidhan (ninefold propositions) sadhayati (performs). [In this respect the wise advice expounded by Sri Jiva Prabhu runs thus - 'In spite of highly developed intellect and expertise, all men are polluted with four illusory propensities, and so they are unfit for realising transcendental spiritual knowledge of inconcievable nature. For this reason, the ten propositions perceived by them are also faulty and imperfect. As such, the intelligence of the living entities is unable to ascertain the inconcievable natur e of transcendental truth; and accordingly through such understanding, no spiritual aspect of wisdom can be proved; but if we are interested in realising the inconcievable wonderful aspects of the transcendental, omnipresent truth, we should accept the au thoritive Vedic scriptures as the fountainhead of all material and spiritual wisdom perpetuated through the eternally continuing chain of disciplic succession.
Why are we so interested in the conviction that the Vedas are authentic? Replying to such a question, it has been stated in Brahma-sutra (2.1.11) that human intelligence can never be satisfied through arguments; and as such no wisdom of spiritual transce ndental truth could be attained by means of arguments. In Mahabharata (Bhismaparva, 5.22) it is said that the transcendental subject matters could never be considered discernible through arguments. Again, Brahmasutra (1.1.3) says that the scriptures are the only source of discerning anything relating to the knowledge of Godhead, and that (2.1.17) authentic words are the only vehicle for discerning transcendental subject matters. In Srimad Bhagavatam (11.20.4), it is said that - 'Oh Supreme Personality of Godhead, love for You and its refinement, developing into the stage of pure devotion means that the image and the opulences of Godhead, although unknowable to the forefathers, the demigods and also to human beings in general, yet their real vision is t he revealed words of truth contained in the Vedas, in other words, the words of the Vedas have become the true vision to human beings in order to experience the Vedic instructions and to disseminate these instructions among the ignorant people. In these w ords, the great sage Sri Vyasadeva has accepted that the writings of the Vedic scriptures revealed as the divine instruction have been accepted as authentic and authoritative.]
Tatha (like that) saktirahita tarkakhya yuktih (arguments based on reasoning without substantive force behind) na pravisati (does not enter, which means that the transcendental spiritual subject matter can never be ascertained through didactic arguments and reasoning).
"The axiomatic Vedic wisdom revealed to us through disciplic succession from Brahma and others, blessed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Hari, is the most authoratative source of instructions. It is fortified by the nine prameyas which reveal i n truth the truth. Dry arguments and reason alone are insufficient for discerning that which is inconceivable, namely transcendental subject matter. Therefore no such arguments can penetrate into the sprititual domain."
harisvekam tattvam vidhisivasuresa-pranamito
yadevedam brahma prakrti-rahitam tattanumahah
paratma tasyamso jagadanugato visvajanakah
sa vai radhakanto navajaladakantiscidudayah
Vidhi-siva-suresa-pranamitah haristvekam tattvam (Sri Hari is the only source of knowledge worshipped by Brahma-Siva-Indra); sa tu navajaldakantiscidudayah radhakanta (His complextion is like a newly-formed cloud. He is the spiritually blissful form of S yamasundara, glorified companion to Radha, known as Krsnacandra); yadbrahma tattanumahah (Brahman as stated in the Upanisads is the bodily effulgence of Radha Kanta), jagadanugatah visvajanakah paratma (innermost knower of the universe, father of creation , supreme soul); tasya (of Sri Krsna); amsah (the third incarnation of Godhead as Visnu lying on the transcendental ocean of milk).
"Sri Hari, who is worshiped by Brahma, Siva and Indra, is the supreme source of all knowledge. Impersonal Brahman is the bodily effulgence of the beautiful Lord Sri Sri Radha-kanta. The creator of the universe Lord Visnu, who lies on the transcendenta l ocean of milk, is only a plenary portion of Sri Hari. Sri Hari Himself is none other than our Sri Radha-vallabha, the lover of Sri Radha. He has a complexion like a newly formed monsoon cloud, as visualized in our hearts."
parakhyayah sakteraprthagapi as sve mahimani
sthito jivakhyam svamacidabhihitam tam tripadikam
svatantrecchah saktim sakalavisaye preranaparo
vikaradyaih sunyah paramapurusoayam vijayate
Sah (Sri Krsna); parakhyayah sakteraprthagapi (even being non-different from the supreme power); sve mahimani sthito (even being situated in His own undivided glorified position); tam tripadikam (the only power in the forms of internal, external and marg inal potencies according to function); sakalavisaye preranaparah svatantrecchah (He Himself is independent and self-willed even after deputing different entities as per internal, external and marginal relationships); paramapurusah vijayate (Supreme Perso nality Sri Hari stays as He is).
Although he is non-different from His imperceptible supreme power, He is an independent and self-willed entity. The Supreme Personality is eternally in existence in His own glories. He is deputing His internal, external and marginal potencies all the time towards different activities in proper ways. Still He is staying in His full potency and form as an undisturbed entity and the supreme source of all knowledge."
Verse 5 described that the Supreme Lord is an ocean of unlimited rasa.
sa vai hladinyasca pranayavikrteh-hladanarata-
tatha sri sandhinya krtavisada-taddhamamcaye
rasambhodhou magno vrajarasavilasi vijayate
Sah vai (Krsna Himself); hladinyasca (of the aspect of amusement under constitutional potency); pranayvirkrteh-hladanarata (engaged in the matters of amusement under amorous ecstasy); punah tacchakteh samircchakti-prakatita-rahobhava-rasitah (again th at constitutional potency is phenomenally manifested through material relationship of samvit); punasca tacchakteh sandhim krtavisada taddhamanicaye rasambhodhou magno (again being submerged in the ocean of transcendental mellow of relationship between the individual and the Supreme Lord through the material features known as sandhini manifestation of the constitutional potency); vraja rasa vilasi vijayate (the Supreme enjoyer of Vraja, Sri Krsna remains abounding with all His excellence).
"There are three manifestations of the spiritual potency - hladini, samvit, and sandhini (bliss, cognizance and eternal existence). Under the amorous ecstasy of bliss Sri Krsna is always attracted and under the intimacy of transcendental cognizance He i s ever satisfied. Manifested throught eternal existence as in the tranquil dhama of Vrndavana and the like, that veary independent enjoyer of Vraja, Sri Krsna, is eternally present as deeply engrossed in the transcendental mellow of spiritual relationshi p. This means that - these three manifestations, namely, bliss, cognizance and eternal existence of the spiritual potency are widely well-known. The manifestation of bliss from the spiritual potency conveys complete transcendental blissful satisfaction t hrough the daughter of King Vrsabhanu to Sri Krsna. Herself being the beloved consort of Krsna, she is the source of eight varieties of awareness manifested in Her eight closest girlfriends in physical forms. 'Priya-sakhi' (confidential friend), 'narma-s akhi' (intimate friend), 'prana-sakhi'(friend as dear as life), and 'parama-prestha-sakhi' (most intimate friend) - these four varieties of service mentality have been manifested by Herself in Her four classifications of friendship. They are the eternally successful friends in the transcendental domain of Vraja. The aspect of samvit or cognizance under spiritual potency has manifested all sorts of relationships prevalent in Vraja. The aspect of sandhini or eternal existence under spiritual potency is man ifested throught the existence of the villages, forests, dwellings, hills, cows and bulls, materials for enjoyment of Sri Krsna, Sri Radhika and Their friends, Their servants. Lord Sri Krsna is eternally ecstatic in amorous bliss and is active in transce ndental cognizance developed throught the aspect of samvit. Cow protection and the rasa dancing - all are the activities of Krsna developed through the aspect of samvit or transcendental cognizance of Sri Krsna. Within the eternal existence of Vraja-dha ma Sri Krsna is eternally engrossed. Vraja-lila-dhama is the most enjoyable place of all the places of pastimes of Sri Krsna."
Verse 6 describes the living entities as the Lord's parts and parcels.
sphulinga rddhagneriva cidanavo jivanicaya
hareh suryasyaivaprthagapi tu tadbhedavisayah
vase maya yasya prakrti-patirevesvara iha
as jivomukto'api prakrtivasa yogyah svagunatah
Clarifying the source of theism, the living entities in different categories are being described - suryasya hareh anava iva (like the molecules in the rays of sun); cidanova (living entities); te tu rddhagneh sphulinga iva (like the sparks of a fire); aprthagapi tu tadbhedavisaya (because of its atomic nature, it is considered as a separate entity although non-different from the Supreme Godhead being manifested through His marginal potency); yasya vase maya sa eva isvarah prakrtipatih (that Hari is th e Godhead, the controller of nature, and illusion is active under His influence.); sah jiva muktah api (even if that living entity is liberated); svagunatah (by his own modes i.e. desires for enjoyment according to individual cravings); prakrtivasayogy a (susceptible to influence of illusion). [Thus a difference between Godhead and living entity is ascertained.]
"Just like athe sparks coming out of a flaming fire, infinite living entities are emanating as the transcendental particles of sunlight in the effulgent rays of Sri Hari, being the transcendental sun Himself. Although non-different from Sri Hari, all li ving entities have eternally different status. The eternal difference between the Godhead and the living entity is that the Supreme Personality of Godhead by dint of His exceptional qualities has kept the illusory potency eternally subjugated as a servit or, and that by virtue He is the Supreme Lord of nature, thus to be accepted as Godhead; whereas one who is susceptible to the influence of illusion simply because of his material nature, inspite of the fact that he is in a position of liberation, should be categorized as a living entity."
svaruparthairhinan nijasukhaparan krsnavimukhan
harermaya dandyan gunanigadhajalaih kalayati
tatha sthulairlingaidvividhavaranaih klesanikarai-
rmmahakarmalanairnayati patitan svarganirayau
Those living entities have two divisions - one is eternally God conscious, and the other is eternally forgetful. One is open minded and eager owing to an awareness of real knowledge and the other is deviated for his lack of knowledge. The God conscious entity is situated as a servitor to Godhead as a result of his inclination to Godhead, and the other is living a life of mundane materialism being defeated by illusion due to his diversion in the way of spiritual thinking. The symptoms of a living entity gripped under the influence of illusion are narrated thus - svaruparthaih hinan (awareness of the constitutional potency is one's transcendental source of knowledge, and absence of such awareness means the lack of knowledge about constitutional potency); nija sukha paran (one who is desirous of sense gratification while disregarding the primary duty of worshipping Hari); Krsna vimukhan (running after material enjoyment entirely forgetting the fact that only Krsna is all in all); dandyan (living entities who are subject to punishment); harermaya (illusion as the external potency of Sri Hari); guna-nigadajalai (with the shackles of modes like goodness passion and ignorance); kalayati (involves); sthulairlingairdvlividhavaranaih (again encompassed under the gross material body with genitals, including the covering of mind, intelligence and ego); klesanikaraih (along with the sufferings; sufferings are - sinful activities, causes of such sinful activities and the three modes arising out of nescience); m ahakarmalanaih (through the vast material world of fruitive activities including all unforseen events useless words and speeches have the qualities of continuous destruction, creating great obstructions of bondage); patitan (those fallen and conditioned living entities); svarganirayou nayati (make the living entities, as a result of their own good and bad types of fruitive activities, travel through the heavenly and hellish planets).
"Constitutionally, a living entity is an obedient servant of Sri Krsna. The illusory potency enchains with its shackles of modes of goodness, passion and ignorance all such living entities who are always after sense gratification, deviated from Krsna con sciousness and thus doomed for chastisement. That illusion takes them around the heavenly and hellish planets, dragging them through the bondage of results of fruitive activities full of sufferings, covered by the gross body with genitals."
yada bhramam bhramam harirasagalad-vaisnavajanam
kadacit sampasyamstadanugamane syadruciyutah
tada krsna vrttya tyajati sanakairmayaikadasam
svarupam vibhrano vimalarasabhogam sa kurute
In order to describe the constitutional position of the living entities free from the bondage of nature through devotional services to Godhead, the process of attaining the constitutional position of the conditioned living entities is thus narrated - yad a (the period of travelling through the forms of various species according to the results of fruitive activities); iha (in this land of India); kadacit (any time as a result of accumulated good effects from devotional services to Godhead); harirasa gala d-vaisnavajanam (any vaisnava person whose heart is absorbed in the devotional mellow of Sri Hari); sampasyan (by looking at); tadanugamane (following in his footsteps, his way of life, devotional services and worshipping of Sri Krsna); rucih syat (int erest is developed); tada sa krsnavrttya (during that period the living entity starts chanting the holy name of Sri Krsna along with other spiritual exercises); krame sanakaih (slowly by and by); mayikadasam tyajati (forsakes his conditioned state unde r illusion); svarupam vibhrano (and attaining the position of liberation upon his achievement of own transcendental constitutional state of being); vimalarasabhogam (blissful taste of divine love); kurute (starts having).
"While travelling through various species of high as well as low grades in this material world, a living entity, conditioned by illusion, develops a taste for pursuing the vaisnava way of life, whenever he comes in contact of a vaisnava person who is abs orbed in the transcendental mellow of Sri Hari; and his illusory conditioning starts withdrawing itself gradually through the process of chanting the holy name of Lord Sri Krsna, so that the said living entity qualifies himself relishing the unalloyed tra nscendental mellow of devotional service to Lord Sri Krsna while attaining gradually his constitutional position."
hareh sakteh sarvam cidacidakhilam syat parinatih
vivarttam no satyam srutimiti viruddham kalimalam
harerbhedabhedou srutivihitatattvam suvimalam
tatah premnah siddhirbhavati nitaram nityavisaye
This is thus said that all spiritual and material worlds are but manifestations of the omnipotency of Sri Hari - sarvam cidacit akilam (all worlds of spiritual and material creation); hareh sakteh parinatih (ultimate results of the omnipotency of Sri Ha ri); syat (become); vivarttam (theory of evolution as propounded by impersonalist mayavadis, explaining a thing wrongly); sa na satyam (that is not true); srutimiti viruddham (against the principles of sruti or Vedic scriptures); kalimalam (according ly, knowledge of evolution should be despised as the filthy covering of Kali yuga, the age of quarrelling); tatah nityavisaye (in the eternal entity of Sri Hari); premnah siddhirvhavati (desire for divine love or an urge to satisfy Lord Sri Krsna is ach ieved).
All the worlds of spiritual and material entity are manifestations of Sri Krsna's omnipotence; the Western theory of evolution is not true, this is nothing but a filthy covering of Kali-yuga and is against Vedic principles; the doctrine of inconceivable oneness and difference is the only unalloyed source of knowledge, in as much as, divine love is crystallized as the eternal knowledge all the time disseminating from the said doctrine of inconceivable oneness and difference.
srutih krsnakhyanam smarana-nati-pujavidhiganah
tatha dasyam sakhyam paricaranamapyatmadadanam
navangani sraddha-pavita-hrdayah sadhayati va
vraje sevaluvdho vimalarasabhavam sa labhate
After discussing so far on the aspect of relationships, now the theory of exposition and requisites are described thus - sruti krsnakhyanam smarana nati pujavidhiganastathadasyam sakhyam paricaranamapi atmadadanam (hearing, chanting, remembering, offerin g obeisances, worshiping, serving the Lord's feet, acting as the Lord's servant, making friends with the Lord, and surrendering oneself fully to the Lord); navangani (these nine processes of devotional service); sraddha pavita hrdayasadhayati va (he who performs these services with all due respect); as vraje sevalubdho vimalarasa havam labhate (such a devotee, anxious to offer services to Vraja, attains unalloyed ecstacy and mellow of the sweetest nature).
"A devotee who performs the nine processes of devotional service, namely, hearing the name and glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, chanting His glories, remembering the Lord, serving the Lord's feet, worshiping the Deity, offering oveisances u nto the Lord, acting as the Lord's servant, making friends with the Lord, and surrendering oneself fully to the Lord - in all sincerity and dedication to offer his services to Vraja-dhama - ultimately attains unalloyed devotional ecstasy to Krsna."
prabhuh kah ko jivah kathamidamacidvisvamiti va
abhedasam dharman sakalamaparadham pariharam
harernamanandam pivati haridaso harijanaih
Upon making an assessment of the theory of relationship, exposition and requisites, the primary duties of a living entity is thus narrated - jivanam kah prabhu ka jiva idam acit visvam katham va etadarthatrayam vicarya (after justifying the three aspects , namely, who is the master or controller of and hence worshipable by the living entity, who are the living entities themselves and why is this non-spiritual i.e., this material world created); haribhajana krcchastracatura, (intelligent person who is eng aged in worshiping Sri Hari upon justifying the said three aspects on the basis of scriptural reasoning); abhedamsa (justification of non-difference with Brahma with the conviction that 'I am Brahma'); dharman (all the religions relating to work, knowledg e and yogic practices); sakalamaparadham (all the offenses relating to holy name and offering services to Godhead); pariharan (avoiding); haridasah (Vaisnava living entity); harijanaih harerhamanandah pivati (becomes glorified in relishing the holy nam e of Sri Hari together with the devotees of Sri Hari).
"Who is Krsna? Who am I as a living entity? What is this spiritual and material world? These are the basic questions upon which a person engaged in worshiping Sri Hari and intelligently well-versed in the scriptures, make a justified assessment and sta rts relishing the holy name of Sri Hari as a servant of Sri Hari together with the saintly devotees. After relinquishing all conceptions of non-differentiated Brahman, all pious and impious living entities and all sorts of offences whatsoever."
samsevya dasamulam vai hitvaavidyamayam janah
bhavapustim tatha tustim labhate sadhusangatah
Dasamulam samsevya (through practicing these ten instructive maxims); andyamayam hitva (by eradicating the disease of nescience, just like many people destroy various feverish diseases with the help of taking a potion made from the extracts of ten varie ties of herbal roots, similarly by eradicating the disease of Krsna-adverseness through practicing these ten instructive maxims); sadhusangatah bhavapustim thatha tustim labhate (attain eternal bliss and loving ecstasy together with saintly persons).
Through practicising these ten instructive maxims, a living entity attains eternal bliss and livng ecstasy together with saintly persons, after eradicating the disease of nescience."
I offer my obeisances unto Gouracandra who has imparted this instruction to me. The instruction is that the Vedas constitute the only source of evidence. The said Vedas extended to us nine aspects of instruction to be established.
Sri Hari is the only source of all knowledge. Sri Krsna with newly-formed cloud complexion, personified eternal, blissful and full of knowledge, may be described with the word Hari. Brahma, as described by the propounders of the Upanisads, is only an e ffulgence of the spiritual planetary systems of Sri Hari. He is not a different entity or aspect apart from Sri Krsna. The Supreme Soul or Paramatma, as depicted by the yogis, is part and parcel of Sri Hari, only under whose visual projection this vast universe was created by nature. Accordingly, Sri Hari is the only master and all others including even Brahma are His servants.
That Sri Hari is omnipotent. There exists an inconceivable subordinate potency of Hari non-different from Hari. He is the spiritual power as internal potency, the illusory power as external potency, and the living entity power as marginal potency. He has created Vaikuntha and other position through the spiritual power, infinite universes through the illusory power and infinite living entities through the living entity power. That subordinate potency has three aspects know as sandhini (material aspect s), samvit (aspects of relationship with Godhead) and hladini (aspect of amusement).
That Sri Krsna as Hari is the ocean of all sorts of mellows. Passive of neutral (santa rasa) mellow, serving (dasya rasa) mellow, friendly (sakhya rasa) mellow, parental (vatsalya rasa) mellow and conjugal (madhura rasa) mellow - are the five tastes. O f all the tastes of mellows, conjugal mellow is the best one. In the pastimes of Sri Krsna at Vrajadham it is this conjugal mellow that stands supreme with all its sanctity. Sri Krsna is radiant with sixty-four qualities, namely:
(1) beautiful features of the entire body (suramyanga)
(2) marked with all auspicious characteristics (sarvasallaksanayukta)
(3) extremely pleasing (sundar)
(4) effulgent (mahateja)
(5) strong (valavan)
(6)ever youthful (kisor-vayasa-yukta)
(7) wonderful linguist (vividha-adbhut-bhasajna)
(8) truthful (satyavak)
(9) talks pleasingly (priya-vakya-yukta)
(10) fluent (vak-patu)
(11) highly learned (supandit)
(12) highly intelligent (vuddhiman)
(13) a genious (pratibhayukta)
(14) artistic (vidagdha)
(15) extremely clever (catur)
(16) expert (daksa)
(17) grateful (krtajna)
(18) firmly determined (sudrdha vrata)
(19) an expert judge of time and circumstances (des-kal-patrajna)
(20) sees and speaks on the authority of Vedas, or scriptures (sastrajna)
(21) pure (suci)
(22) self-controlled (vasi)
(23) steadfast (sthir)
(24) forbearing (damanasil)
(25) forgiving (ksamasil)
(26) grave (gambhir)
(27) self-satisfied (dhrtiman)
(28) possessing equilibrium (samadarsan)
(29) magnanimous (vadanya)
(30) religious (dharmik)
(31) heroic (sura)
(32) compassionate (karun)
(33) respectful (manada)
(34) gentle (daksin)
(35) liberal (vinayi)
(36) shy (lajjayukta)
(37) protector of surrendered souls (saranagata-palaka)
(38) happy (sukhi)
(39) the well wisher of devotees (bhakta-vandhu)
(40) controlled by love (prema-vasya)
(41) all auspicious (sarva-sukhakari)
(42) most powerful (pratapi)
(43) all-famous (kirtiman)
(44) popular (lokanurakta)
(45) partial to devotees (sadhudiger samasram)
(46) very attractive to all women (nari-manohari)
(47) all worshipable (sarvaradhya)
(48) all opulent (samrddhiman)
(49) all honorable (srestha)
(50) the supreme controller (aisvarya-yukta)
Besides all of the above-mentioned fifty qualities, Lord Krsna possesses five more, which are sometimes partially manifested in the persons of Lord Brahma or Lord Siva. These transcendental qualities are as follows:
(1) changeless (sarvada svarupa-samprapta)
(2) all-cognizant (sarvajna)
(3) ever fresh (nitya-nutan)
(4) possessing an eternal blissful body (saccidananda-gharibhuta-svarupa)
(5) possessing all mystic perfections (akhila-siddhi-vasakari ataevsarva-siddhi-nisevita)
Krsna also possesses five other qualities, which are manifest in the body of Narayana, and they are listed as follows.
(1) He has inconceivable potency (avicintya-maha saktitva)
(2) uncountable universes generate from his body (koti-brahmanda-vigrahatva)
(3) He is the original source of all incarnations (sakala-avatar-vijatva)
(4) He is the giver of salvation to the enemies whom He kills (hata-satru-sugati-dayakatva)
(5) He is the attractor of liberated souls (atmaramganer akarsakatva)
All these transcendental qualities are manifest wonderfully in the personal feature of Lord Krsna.
Besides these sixty transcendental qualities, Krsna has four more, which are not manifest even in the Narayana form of Godhead, what to speak of the demigods or living entities. They are as follows:
(1) He is the performer of wonderful varieties of pastimes (especially His childhood pastimes) (sarva-loker camatkarini-lilar-kallol-samudra),
(2) He is surrounded by devotees endowed with wonderful love of Godhead. (srngara-raser atulya-prema-sobhavisista prema-mandal).
(3) He can attract all living entities all over the universes by playing on His flute (trijagater cittakarsi murati-gita-gan).
(4) He has a wonderful excellence of beauty which cannot be rivaled anywhere in the creation.
Adding to the list these four exceptional qualities of Krsna, it is to be understood that the aggregate number of qualities of Krsna is sixty-four.
In the preceding three aspects, knowledge about Godhead is introduced. In the 4th, 5th and 6th aspects, knowledge about living entities is being narrated. An appraisal of constitutional position of living entities is contained in the fourth aspect. Th e living entity is manifested in different forms just like lighting up an infinite number of small lamps from the supreme lamp under the influence of marginal potency of Sri Hari's subordinate power or energy. Although a living entity is constitutionally spiritual and is provided with spiritual propensities, it is very, very infinitesimal and dependent in nature. Owing to such dependent nature, Krsna-adverseness develops leading to domination by illusion. The distinction between Godhead and living entity is that although both of them are constitutionally situated on the spiritual platform, but by nature, the one who is the controller and master of illusion which is serving Him eternally, is the Godhead. One who is susceptible to domination of illusion, ev en when in a liberated position, and is animalcular in form, is a living entity. He remains free from illusion only when surrendered unto Krsna. A perfect living entity is characterised with the spiritual embodiment, and the fifty qualities enumerated he reinbefore are all in existence in him in drops and particles. All these qualities are of course spiritual. There should be no existence of illusory propensities or qualities in a perfect living entity.
The living entity is just like a corpuscle in the rays of the spiritual sun which is Krsna. He is subservient and thus in a state of being enslaved and subject to mundane earthly enjoyment because of his infinitesimal form. If subservient to Krsna, he w ould have no suffering and could enjoy eternally heightened bliss. When his desires for sense gratification gradually become Krsna-averse, he becomes illusioned and starts suffering from illusory pleasure and pain in this material world, involved in irres istible cycle of fruitive activities created by illusionary potency. The cycle of illusory fruitive activities comprises of virtue and vice, pleasure and pain, as well as high and low status. Through such a mundane cycle of activities sometimes one may attain heavenly planets and may also undergo hellish condition - thus travelling through eighty-four lakhs of species.
In spite of the fact that the living entity may become conditioned through the cycle of illusion, he is but constitutionally of spiritual potency and thus capable of being liberated from illusion; he can not of course attain liberation through any kind o f illusory activities.
Accordingly, it is not possible to dispel illusory effect by dint of any acquired virtue and pious activities. Even if the conception is developed that I am a living entity and that my spiritual corpuscular existence and illusion is simply despicable for me - will not be instrumental in liberating oneself from illusion through such an awakening of the spirit of gnostic renunciation.
As soon as the spell of latent and obscure ecstasy of considering oneself as the servant of Lord Sri Krsna is awakened, the effective benefit of liberation will be impending. Only upon such an awakening of one's own disposition that the disposition of b eing dominated by illusion starts dispelling in course of time. Who can awaken one's own disposition which is extremely obsolescent? This can not be done through any efforts of fruitive activities, pedantic knowledge and gnostic renunciation.
Accordingly, one whose own disposition is awakened by virtue of some destiny, may use the benefit of awakening the almost obsolescent disposition of other living entities through the force of his association.
In this connection, the instance of two happenings will be required. One who is desirous of awakening his own true disposition, attains a little of devotional flavour of seeking shelter* by virtue of the results of his previous activities of devotional services offered unto Godhead - and this will be considered as one of the instances of two happenings required as mentioned hereinbefore.
The second instance of happening is that he gets an association with the saintly persons by virtue of the results of such pious activities. He who has been able to awaken his own true disposition fortunately by dint of associating himself with other sai ntly persons, can only be considered as a saintly person or sadhu.
An ecstacy of devotion is developed through practicing the chanting of the holy name of Sri Hari and others, under the powerful effect of association with the saintly persons; by and by, an awakening of loving and ecstasy is developed. An air of liberat ion starts blowing in proportion to the awakening of loving ecstasy as a concomitant beneficial effect.
* Additional Notes on 'seeking shelter' (saranapatti-laksana): 'anukulyasya samkalpah pratikulasya varjanam, raksisyatiti visvaso goptrtve varanam tatha, atmaniksepakarpanye sadvidha saranagatih.' The purport is this - when the living entity comes to rea lise it definitely that the illusory world is his prison-house and as such it is despicable and that all fruitive activities, all speculative knowledge and opulence or yogic processes relating to renunciation and emancipation can not firmly bring his own true disposition to sense, then he takes shelter at the lotus feet of Lord Sri Krsna as an insignificant soul surrendering unto the supreme will of Sri Krsna, with full confidence in the fact that Sri Krsna is his only protection and controller, dispellin g all sorts of distractive activities against the attainment of devotional services to Sri Krsna. This is the symptom of unalloyed devotional services to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Knowledge of relationship is awakened upon discoursing the aspects mentioned under 1 to 6 in association with saintly persons. Classification of knowledge of relationship and will be attempted under this seventh aspect. An inquisitive living entity usua lly wants to know - (1) Who am I? (2) Whom I belong to? (3) What is my relationship with the universe? Upon discoursing on these three points elaborately, one observes that oneself as a living entity is but a corpuscular consciousness and eternal serva nt of Lord Sri Krsna, and that this entire cosmos is the manifestation of the phenomenon of oneness and difference of Sri Krsna. Sri Krsna is the only relation. Any sort of speculation on the basis of the so called theory of evolution is redundant and n on-Vedic under the inconceivable potency of Sri Krsna, all living entities and the entire cosmos are eternally different and non-different from Him. One's position in this material universe is thus not of eternal existence; it is just a prison house. Fr om this understanding develops one's devotion in unflinching surrender unto Lord Sri Krsna which means a deep confidence is awakened.
So far, an enlightenment in the understanding of relationship is thus attained and association with the saintly persons through singular devotion is elevated to the level of reverence. Now, deliberating on the matter of how Lord Krsna can be made pleased , one is inclined to approach and ask a bona fide spiritual master as to the processes of satisfying Lord Krsna. The spiritual master, ascertaining one to be really surcharged with the qualities of reverence, imparts real devotional instruction to satisf y Lord Krsna. The symptoms of such a qualified person with reverence are thus quoted - anyabhilasitansunyam jnanakarmadya-navrtam anukulyena krnanushitan bhaktiruttama.
Chanting the holy names of Lord Sri Krsna and glorification of His beauty, qualities and pastimes as an embodiment of the constitutional position of His eternal, blissful and omniscient entity, if performed through favourable disposition, would be consi dered the best type of devotion or the purest form of devotion.
The practice of devotional processes should be made favorably disposed to worshiping the Lord, in relation to all sorts of activities, relationship and mental state of a living entity. Accordingly, a favourable disposition towards worshiping the Lord ma y be considered to lead a life which avoids all sorts of activities, relationship and mental state averse to worshiping.
In order to achieve such a disposition, one is to practice a little enthusiastic endeavour. Worshiping is required to be performed with an effort to awaken the realization of his own constitutional position of a living entity. The objective will be to o ffer the worship in a purified manner. There should be no other desire excepting a desire to improve upon worshiping. Accordingly, any desire for sense gratification and liberation even is required to be renounced altogether.
There should of course be enterprises for acquiring knowledge and earning money through activities for livelihood, but all such aspects of activities and knowledge that may usually conceal unalloyed devotional enterprises should be very carefully prevent ed. One should be away from indiscriminatory knowledge of Brahman and from activities devoid of devotional symptoms.
There are nine processes of devotional service expounded as hearing the name and glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (sravana), chanting His glories (kirtana), remembering the Lord (smarana), serving the Lord's feet (paricarya), worshiping the Deity (arcana), offering obeisances unto the Lord (vandana), acting as the Lord's servant (dasya), making friends with the Lord (sakhya) and surrendering oneself fully to the Lord (atmanivedana).
Again it is prescribed that these processes can be subdivided into some sixty-four auxiliary processes on the basis of principle components of devotional enterprise. Amongst these, some are of regulative principles or characteristics and some are of pro hibitive characteristics or principles.
The regulative characteristics of the auxiliary devotional processes mainly include five essentials, thus chanting of the holy name of Hari, residing at the sacred place of Hari, observing and meditating on the transcendental form and beauty of Hari, off ering services to persons engaged in the service of Hari, and cultivating the study of the scriptures relating to devotional service to Hari.
It is extremely essential to abide by the following ten prohibitive principles, thus - abandoning all offensive activities, carefully giving up all non-Vaisnava association, restraining from initiation of many disciples in order to enhance the vanity as a spiritual master, abandoning the study and analytic discourse of a number of books, relinquishing all sorts of distressful and happy emotions arising out of material loss and gain, declining to be overcome by mourning and deep attachment, refusing an au dition to any censure of Lord Visnu and Vaisnava persons, rejecting any practice of vulgarity as an adverse disposition, and refraining from inflicting worries to any living entity.
Offence are classified in two categories, thus - offenses in offering serves and offenses in chanting the holy name. The offenses in offering service to the deity are to be seriously considered. Every devotee should refrain from the offenses relating t o chanting of the holy name, thus -
(1) censuring any saintly person engaged in chanting the holy name
(2) considering Godhead to be different from His holy name, form, qualities and pastimes and assuming the existence of different godheads like Siva and others apart from the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
(3) Despising the holy name, scriptural instruction and the spiritual master.
(4) Despising the scriptures meant for glorifying the holy name.
(5) considering the glories of the holy name to be just hymns.
(6) considering the holy name to be speculative.
(7) committing sinful activities by virtue of the holy name.
(8) equating the holy name, which is tantamount to the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the highest mellow in consciousness, with other forms of materialistic virtue or auspicious performances.
(9) preaching the holy name to any unqualified disrespectful person.
(10) chanting the holy name to along with the vanity of egotism and sense of attachment.
These are the ten offenses relating to the holy name of the Lord. These offenses in holy names are very cruel and merciless, in as much as these are very difficult to throw off. These can only be eliminated through the process of constant association w ith the saintly persons. Every disciple must be endeavouring to remain unaffected by these offenses in chanting the holy name, right from the initiation in the holy name.
Chanting the holy name of the Lord along with His form and beauty, His qualities and pastimes is the highest level of all devotional processes. When these devotional services are practiced strictly in accordance with the scriptures, then it may be consi dered to be ritualistic devotion (vaidhi bhakti). Through constant practicing of such devotional services, an awakening of devotional ecstasy is attained.
There is another process of devotional performance which is extraordinary and known as spontaneous devotional service in which the devotee follows in the footsteps of one of the eternal associates of Krsna in Vrndavana (raganuga-bhakti). The spontaneous devotion of the inhabitants of Vrajadham is substantial and authentic. Some virtuous person may sometime be inclined to imitate such devotional service, simply out of a strong temptation. His performances in the devotional service may be considered as spontaneous devotion. In this consideration, there is no need for any scriptural reasoning. The only qualification in it is the urge to offer devotional service. These two types of devotional services may very well be classified under the appellative aspect of absolute truth (abhidheya-tattva).
The ninth aspect is the love for Lord Sri Krsna arising out of need. While practicing devotional processes intently through all due respect or cultivating faithful replication of the moods of the inhabitants of Vrajadham, a gradual awakening of Krsna co nsciousness is quite evident. At that stage, entire effort may be rendered ecstatic by way of coinciding the enterprising practice of ritualistic devotional services with those of ecstatic mood. That ecstatic mood gradually attains the stage of living r elationship with the Lord in various transcendental mellows or tastes, viz.,in passive or neutral relationship (santa rasa), serving relationship (dasya rasa), friendly relationship (sakya rasa), parental relationship (vatsalya rasa), and conjugal relationship (madhura rasa).
Passive or neutral relationship (santa rasa) is spirited while the subject of love is away from Vrajadham, while the transcendental mellow of serving relationship (dasya rasa) is projected within Vrajadham. Loving attachment is a sort of highly ecstatic state of mind, and this is rendered into serving (dasya rasa) relationship with Lord Krsna as and when conjoined with intent attachment with Him. An abounding reverence mixed with awe and submission is present in the state of serving relationship.
Whenever there is an air of unrestrained enjoyment without reverence or, in other words, a sense of trust and confidence is awakened, then it is termed as affectionate amorous love (pranay) and this is considered under the transcendental mellow of friend ly relationship (sakhya rasa).
In case this mellow is admixed enough with tenderness (sneha), then it may very well be considered as parental relationship (vatsalya rasa). When all the qualities of parental relationship become highly coveted, then this relationship is turned into ero tic sentiment and this erotic sentiment is the highest of all the transcendental mellows.
Enjoyment and appreciation of this relationship can be experienced only through rendering service to any associates of Sri Radha-Krsna considering oneself to be submissively protected, while staying at Vrajadham.
Lord Sri Krsna is eternally full of knowledge (saccit) in His constitutional form, and the knowledge of eternal bliss non-different from Him is - Srimati Radhika. The confidantes (sakhis) of all-blissful Radhika pertain to a particular mood of Herself, and accordingly, they comprise of an embodiment of array. In as much as those confidantes are the embodiment of any array under the superior energy, they are also the manifestation of the constitutional form of superior energy.
When the requirement of love for Krsna is fulfilled and the living entity is purified, he is then considered to be one among the valets of those confidantes and starts enjoying eternal blissful existence, remaining ever-charged with the pleasure of offer ing service to Radha Krsna, which state of existence is the highest requirement of all living entities. This is really an amazing mood of the knowledge of eternal absolute truth.
There is no existence of such an amazingly blissful mood in the state of liberation consequent to the annihilation of indiscriminatory Brahman.
As propounded by Sri Rupa Goswami, thus - 'adau srddha tatah sadhusanga'tha bhajanakriya, tato'anartha nivrttih syattato nistha rucistatah; athasaktistato bhabastatah premabhyndancati; sadhakanamayam premnah pradurbhave bhavet kramah syaddrdheyam ratih p remnaprodyan snehah kramadayam; syaninanah pranayo rago'anurago bhava ityapi; vijamiksuh sa ca rasah sa gudah khanda eva sah; sa sarkara sita sa ca sa yatha syat sitotpala'.
In the first stage, there should be respect, then an association with the saintly persons should develop out of that respect; then the processes of worshiping will start inspired by the association of the saintly persons; then there will be gradual elimi nation of various unhappy occurrences (anartha) as a result of devotional processes of worshiping; when a higher taste and inclination for leading a spiritual life will develop from the elimination of unhappy occurrences, resulting into a mood of ecstasy, which will ultimately give rise to the awakening of divine love. The other name of divine love is erotic sentiment which becomes crystallised (rati) gradually and is turned into parental affection, dignity, amorous love, transcendental mellow, attractio n and a heightened mood in the final stage. This process of the development of spiritual love may very well be compared to the process of preparing sugarcane into its juice, then turning it into molasses, then into slices of candy and to sugar, and final ly into alcohol and sweetmeats of various tastes of the highest degree.
Ten maxims comprise of the valuable instructions Sri Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu imparted to Rupa, Sanatana and others. This treatise is the essence of those Ten Maxims. Anyone aspiring to be a pure Vaisnava upon accepting the instructions of Sriman Mahapra bhu, must at first acquire this essence of Ten Maxims. The spiritual master will show him all the aspects within this essence in brief. Out of respect and reverence, one may take shelter at the lotus feet of the spiritual master. From the lotus feet of the spiritual master, one is elevated to the level of instruction in worshiping. By way of worshiping, there will be elimination of unhappy occurrences. But one can attain the stage of ecstatic mood through intent dedication and sincerity only.
The first aspect of worshiping the Lord is to acquire the Ten Maxims. Upon imbibing the disciple with the essence of Ten Maxims, the spiritual master will perform five sacramental purifications on the disciple.
tapah pundram tatha nama
mantro yagasca pancamah
ami-hi panca samskarah
The significance of this verse may be put forward in brief, thus - Whenever there is a little awakening of reverence in the heart of a disciple, he approaches a genuine spiritual master. Before coming to the lotus feet of his spiritual master, the disci ple must have undergone a lot of suffering and repentance. 'I have been suffering greatly as fallen in the dreadful ocean of material existence. Oh protector of the fallen souls! Please accept me mercifully at your lotus feet considering me as a dust-p article, because there is none to protect me'- lamenting thus the disciple falls prostrate at the feet of his spiritual master.
No one unless aggrieved like this is eligible to get initiated, and the spiritual master makes an assessment of the prospective disciple by way of putting him through a spell of feverish activities.
Sri Caitanyadev, the most merciful, saviour in the age of struggle and turmoil, and embodiment of universal spiritual master, ordered that his disciple's body to be decorated with sandal paste and other things. First of all, the prospective repentant dev otee should put on symbolic tilak signs of Hari temples and other auspicious items.
At the time of repentance, these ten maxims should very well be used as a means to perpetuate such repentance in a prospective devotee, he should be advised to practice wearing twelve tilaka signs. This is the occasion when a disciple is said to be newly born. Hence, he should very well be given a devotional and spiritual name. It is essential to have a clear understanding of the self entity and the constitutional form of the self at this stage. Along with it, he should also be given the mahamantra in the name of Hare Krsna and His relationship with the living entity. Upon acquainting the disciple with the substance of the mahamantra, the spiritual master will then fully pronounce his disciple with the true significance of relationships with the Supr eme Personality of Godhead.
The five forms of sacramental purification (samskara) will be the rituals through the process of offering service to the black goede (salagram) as the symbol of Visnu and to the deities so that a living entity, now involved in material relationship, may very well be rendered steadfast in developing true relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna.
The process of five sacramental purification (pancam samskara) is classified into two categories: elementary and final.
For a person who is already in the state of a loving relationship with the Godhead, the process of offering service mentally may be considered tantamount to the act of worshipping.
Srimanmahaprabhu delivered His conclusive advice to Sri Raghunath Dasa Goswami saying thus:
gramya katha na sunive
gramya-varta na kahive
bhalo na khaive ar bhalo na parive
amani manada hanya krsna-nam sada lave
vraje Radha-Krsna seva manase karive.
One should never listen to any vulgarity, nor converse in a vulgar dialect. One should not take any delicious foodstuff, nor use any luxurious clothings. Being respectful even to an unrespectable person, one should practice chanting the holy name of S ri Krsna all the time, and practice offering service to Radha and Krsna in Vrajadham, mentally even.
In the first three lines of the verse stated above, a clear instruction is give to a devotee, impregnated with devotional ecstasy, on the physical aspect of purification.
In the concluding two lines of the said verse, there is the instruction as to the process of worshipping and offering service to the Godhead. The manifestation of worshipping is enough in accepting the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna for regular chanting with an attitude of respect to the unrespectable even.
The process of mental worshiping service to Radha and Krsna in Vrajadham is the most confidential aspect in this respect. This service is prescribed for all the eight periods of an entire day including night, viz., day-break, early morning, forenoon, af ternoon, twilight, evening and night. The spiritual master will advise the disciple in this matter in accordance with relevant scriptures. Because, unhappy occurrences can not be prevented unless the process of worshiping is practiced properly, after acquiring the essence of Ten Maxims.
The unhappy occurrences are classified in four varieties, viz., delusion about one's own constitutional position (svarupabhram), desire for inequitous activities (asat-trsna), offences (aparadh), and dastardliness (hrdaya-dourvalya).
Forgetting one's own constitutional position, every living entity has become illusioned under the vanity of some other position, and as such, this delusion about one's own constitutional position must, at first, be eliminated.
However, this sort of delusion about one's own constitutional position may not be eliminated in a day, and as such, it should be developed through a gradual process of practicing service to Lord Krsna. The dignity of realization that 'I am servant of Lord Sri Krsna' is the actual attainment of knowledge in one's own constitutional position. The practice of offering service to Sri Krsna together with this kind of dignified realization of servitude may very well be considered to be the truest form of off ering devotional service to Sri Krsna.
The realization of one's own constitutional position is awakened under the mercy of the spiritual master. The disciple as well should be avowedly enthusiastic in realising his own constitutional position. At the initial age, the more the unhappy occurrences would start disappearing, the more there will be disappearance of all subsequent unhappy occurrences, viz., desire for ineqitous activities (asat-trsna) etc. along with them.
The thirst for property and riches or for worldly pleasures and enjoyments is considered to be the desire for inequitous activities (asat-trsna). Heavenly pleasure, sense gratification, and pleasure from wealth and one's own people, men and money - are all simply desire for inequitous activities. The more one's own realization of constitutional position becomes clarified, the more evidently there must be a detachment from all sorts of rusticity of sensationalism.
Along with it, one must be intently enthusiastic in avoiding all offences relating to the holy name (namaparadh). While chanting the holy name and avoiding such offences, the wealth of devotional love is soon attained.
Any kind of activity which involves lethargy, yielding to rustic matters, bewilderment under all sorts of dejection, distraction from pure devotional service by way of false arguments, niggardliness in devoting entire vitality in practicing offer of ser vice to Lord Sri Krsna, repudiating one's own real position of humble wretchedness through illusion of a puffed-up vanity owing to nationality, wealth, erudition, manpower, handsomeness, and strength, steering under the influence of sinful tendency or ad vice, carelessness in purification of dogmatian and bigotry, reluctance to be merciful owing to anger, illusion, envy, and impatience, false vanity and egotism of being a vaisnava while nurturing high hopes for earning fame or reputation through crookedne ss, and oppression of other living entities with a desire for achieving sense gratification, wealth and opulence, as well as women - appears out of dastardliness alone.
Whoever is contemptuous to these Ten Maxims considering to be an inference only, will never be able to attain perfection in offering devotional service to Lord Sri Krsna.
Whenever any prospective venerable disciple approaches the spiritual master, the disciple should be directed to give intent perusal to this scripture, before he is initiated into the process of five sacramental purification (panca samskara) within the fo ld of Sri Sri Caitanya community. If this can be properly effected to, no unqualified person will ever be able to pollute and tarnish the unblemished image of the community sponsored by Sri Sriman Mahaprabhu. Thus ends the treatise.
miche maya-vase, samsara-sagare, padiya chilama ami karuna kariya, diya pada-chaya, amare tarila tumi I fell into the ocean of samsara and became enslaved in futile activities by the influence of maya. You were merciful and delivered me by giving me the shade of your lotus feet. suno suno vaisnava thakura!! tomara carane, sampiyachi matha, mora duhkha kara dura O Vaisnava thakura, please hear me. I have surrendered my head at your feet. Please dispel my misery. jatira gaurava, kevala raurava, vidya se avidya-kala sodhiya amaya, nitai-carane, sampahe -- jauka jvala Pride of caste is a terrible hell. Material learning is but an aspect of ignorance. Please purify me and deliver me to the feet of Nitäi. Please extinguish my blazing agony. tomara krpaya, amara jihvaya, sphuruka yugala-nama kahe kalidasa(krsnadas), amara hrdaye, jaguka Sri-Radha-Syama By your mercy, may the holy names of Sri Yugala appear on my tongue, and may Sri Radha-Syama appear in my heart. This is the prayer of Kalidas. (Jaiva Dharma pg88) i think :-)
Srila Raghunatha Dasa Babaji explains Dasa-mula
to Vrajanatha and Vijaya Kumara in Navadvipa.
Sri Gopal Guru Gosvami imparts Rasa-Tattva
at the Sri Radha-Kanta Matha in Puri.